WORLD RHINO DAY (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env & Eco)

News-CRUX-10     22nd September 2023        

Context: According to a recent report, climate change-induced droughts are now posing a threat to the rhino population in Africa, alongside poaching and habitat loss.

Key Points of Report

  • According to the report: Habitat loss, poaching and climate change continue to threaten the existence of all five rhino species. 
  • Apart from poaching and habitat loss, climate change-induced droughts have been threatening the rhino population in Africa.
  • According to the report, the landscape-level threat of invasive species to Greater One-Horned rhinos is significant.
  • The national park is connected to Burhachapori Wildlife Sanctuary in the east, and it can create link across all protected areas that house rhinos — Manas National Park, Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary, Orang National Park, the Laokhowa and Burhachapori Wildlife Sanctuaries and Kaziranga National Park.

World Rhino Day

  • First announced by: World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - South Africa in 2010
  • Objectives: Strengthening protection, Expanding the distribution range, Research, and monitoring, Adequate and sustained funding.
  • Five Species: White and Black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhino species in Asia.
  • IUCN Red List Status

o White Rhino: Near Threatened.

o Black Rhino: Critically endangered.

o Greater One Horned: Vulnerable.

o Javan: Critically Endangered

o Sumatran Rhino: Critically Endangered

One-Horned Rhinoceros

  • About: It is the largest of the rhino species. It is identified by a single black horn and a grey-brown hide with skin folds.

o India is home to the largest number of Greater One-Horned Rhinoceros in the world.

  • Habitat: Indo-Nepal terai and northern West Bengal and Assam.
  • Found: found in Kaziranga NP, Pobitora WLS, Orang NP, Manas NP, Jaldapara NP and Gorumara NP and Dudhwa TR.