Wildlife Conservation

Mains Marks Booster     31st July 2023        

Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting plant and animal species and their habitats. As part of the world’s ecosystems, wildlife provides balance and stability to nature’s processes. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure the survival of these species and to educate people on living sustainably with other species.

Causes of wildlife losses:

  • Habitat loss
  • Human-animal conflict
  • Deforestation
  • Climate Change
  • The IUCN currently classifies around 23% (1,130 species) of mammals and 12% (1,194 species) of birds as threatened.

Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2022 


  • The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2022 is a significant legislation for wildlife conservation in India.
  • It aims to strengthen the protection of endangered species and fulfill India's international obligations under CITES.
  • The act enhances punishment for illegal wildlife trade, promotes better management of protected areas, and protects forest lands while respecting the rights of local communities.

Objectives: Protection of Endangered Species, Better Management of Protected Areas, and Protection of Forest Lands

Amendments made:

  • New Schedule for CITES-Listed Species: Introduces a schedule aligned with CITES listings to regulate trade in endangered plant species.
  • Rationalization of Schedules: there were six schedules in the act but the new amendment has only four schedules. 
  • Establishment of a Standing Committee for Wildlife Management: Creates a committee responsible for delegated wildlife management powers and duties.
  • Appointment of Management Authority and Scientific Authority: Empowers the central government to appoint authorities for wildlife management and scientific guidance.
  • Regulation of Invasive Plant and Animal Alien Species: Enables the government to 
  • regulate import, trade, or possession of invasive species.
  • Enhanced Penalties for Violations of the Act: Increases fines for various violations of the Wildlife (Protection) Act.

Concerns Associated with the Act:

  • Vagueness.
  • Unaddressed Issues of Human-Wildlife Conflict and Eco-Sensitive Zone Rule
  • Incompleteness of Species Listings in the Act's Schedules
  • Hindrance to Research: With the new system of schedules scientists may require two levels of permissions from the state and the Centre to collect specimens.

Conclusion: The recent amendments mark a crucial milestone in wildlife conservation, however there is a need to address concerns raised by experts. These updates demonstrate a proactive approach toward ensuring effective protection and management of our valuable wildlife resources.

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