Mains Marks Booster     31st July 2023        
output themes

A mangrove is a tiny tree or shrub that grows along coasts and establishes itself in saline sediments, frequently beneath water.

The term "mangrove" can apply to either the mangrove swamp's trees and bushes or the ecosystem as a whole.

Threats to mangroves:

  • The sale of goods in Coastal Areas: These salt-tolerant trees and the ecosystems they sustain are being quickly replaced by aquaculture, coastal development, rice and palm oil farming, and industrial activities.
  • At least 35% of the entire decline in mangrove forests can be attributed to the establishment of shrimp farms.
  • Temperature: A 10-degree change in temperature over a brief period of time is enough stress to harm the plant, and even a few hours of freezing temperatures can be fatal to some mangrove species.
  • Human intervention: Mangroves have been able to migrate farther inland with previous fluctuations in sea level, but in many locations, human activity has become a barrier that restricts how far a mangrove forest may migrate.

Initiatives taken:

MISHTI (Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats and Tangible Incomes) scheme

Introduction: The Mangroves - MISHTI (Mangrove Initiative for Shoreline Habitats & Tangible Incomes) scheme is a comprehensive program initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change in India. It aims to promote the development of mangroves across 11 states and 2 union territories, focusing on conservation, sustainable livelihoods, and ecological restoration.


  • Mangrove Development: The Development of approximately 540 square kilometers of mangroves across 11 states and 2 union territories.
  • Convergence: The scheme integrates existing schemes and programs of the central and state governments. 


  • Ecological Importance: Mangroves provide essential ecosystem services, including shoreline protection, carbon sequestration, and habitat for numerous plant and animal species.
  • Livelihood Support: Many local communities depend on mangroves for their livelihoods, such as fishing, aquaculture, and tourism.
  • Climate Change Resilience: Mangroves play a significant role in climate change adaptation by acting as carbon sinks and reducing the vulnerability of coastal areas to natural disasters.

Sundarbans Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh

 Successful community-based conservation in the world's largest mangrove forest.


The Mangroves - MISHTI scheme stands as an innovative endeavor that combines environmental conservation, sustainable development, and community engagement. By fostering ecological resilience, promoting green livelihoods, and leveraging cutting-edge approaches, this scheme paves the way for a greener and more prosperous future for coastal regions in India.

Initiatives related to Mangroves

  • Mangrove ecosystems around the world are better understood, managed, and conserved as a result of their inclusion in Biosphere Reserves, World Heritage sites, and UNESCO Global Geoparks.
  • Blue Carbon Initiative: The goal of the International Blue Carbon Initiative is to reduce global warming by conserving and restoring coastal and marine ecosystems.
  • The "Mangroves for the Future (MFF)" initiative was created by the IUCN and UNDP to encourage financial support for the preservation of coastal ecosystems.