International Initiatives and Agreements on Biodiversity

Mains Marks Booster     31st July 2023        
  • The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development was a short document produced at the 1992 United Nations “Conference on Environment and Development” (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit.  
  • Its major outcomes were the Establishment of Convention on Biological Diversity, Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

Recent Developments in the Context of UNCBD (COP 15):  Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) (2022)

  • Recently the 15th Conference of Parties to the UNCBD (COP 15) was held in Montreal, Canada. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Global Biodiversity Framework also known as the Kunming- Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework.

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF): A “Paris Movement” for Biodiversity 

  • The plan includes concrete measures to halt and reverse nature loss, including putting 30 per cent of the planet and 30 per cent of degraded ecosystems under protection by 2030. 
  • It also contains proposals to increase finance to developing countries – a major sticking point during talks.

Way Forward:

  • Innovative Financing Mechanisms
  • Green Technologies: Bioenergy, sustainable agriculture practices, and clean energy solutions to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity.
  • Digital Monitoring and Surveillance: Utilise advanced technologies like satellite imagery, drones, and artificial intelligence for real-time monitoring.
  • Science-Policy Interface: Strengthen the science-policy interface by fostering collaboration between scientists, policymakers, and local communities to inform evidence-based decision-making.
  • Global Cooperation and Partnerships: Foster international cooperation and partnerships among governments, civil society organizations, private sector entities, and indigenous communities to collectively address biodiversity challenges and achieve conservation targets.


  • By setting ambitious targets, promoting sustainable development, and strengthening governance and financing mechanisms, COP 15 provides an opportunity to create a more sustainable and biodiverse future for all.

                                                              Extra Marks Fetching component by theIAShub

  • Bonn Challenge: A global effort to restore 350 million hectares of degraded land by 2030, through nature-based solutions.
  • Great Green Wall Initiative: A project across Africa aiming to restore 100 million hectares of degraded land.
  • Promote climate resilience through reforestation and sustainable land management.
output themes