SUDAN CONFLICT (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 - International Relations)

News-CRUX-10     21st September 2023        

Context: More than 1,200 children under the age of five died in Sudan from suspected measles and malnutrition in nine camps in White Nile State recently, according to United Nations agencies.


  • About: It is a country in Northeast Africa and is Africa's third-largest country by area and the third-largest by area in the Arab League. 
  • Capital: Khartoum.
  • Border: Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, Egypt to the north, Eritrea to the northeast, Ethiopia to the southeast, Libya to the northwest, South Sudan to the south, and the Red Sea. 

Sudan Conflict

  • 2019 Coup: Former Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir, an ex-army officer, came to power in a military coup.

o Transitional Government: Initially, the military refused to give up power. But as popular protests continued, they agreed to take part in a transitional government made up of both civilian forces and army officers. The transitional government was supposed to remain in charge until democratic elections could be held in 2023.

  • 2021 Coup: There were growing divisions within both the civilian and military sides, as well as increased competition between them. In 2021, the military element of the civilian-military coalition seized full control of the country.

o In 2021, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), led by General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, took control of the government in a military coup.

o The Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by General Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo has worked alongside the Sudanese army to help keep the military in power.

  • Recent Crisis between SAF and RSF: The SAF leader Burhan is more inclined towards a transition to civilian rule under international pressure while RSF leader opposed this. Moreover, Burhan wants the RSF to come under a unified command of the SAF.