LEFT WING EXTREMISM (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Internal Security)

News-CRUX-10     23rd January 2024        
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Context: Recently, the Union Home Minister of India chaired a review meeting of the Left Wing Extremists situation in Chhattisgarh at Raipur.

Left-Wing Extremism (LWE)

  • About: Left-wing extremists, known globally as Maoists and in India as Naxalites/Naxalism, have posed a significant threat to India since the 1960s.
  • Geographical Spread: 46 Districts affected in 2011
  • Origin of Naxalism: The origins of the LWE date back to 1967, specifically in Naxalbari, Phansidewa, and Khoribari within West Bengal's Darjeeling District.
  • Leadership: The initial uprising was spearheaded by prominent figures such as Charu Majumdar, Kanu Sanyal, and Jangal Santhal, all of whom were affiliated with the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
  • Peasant Revolt: The formative stage of the LWE movement manifested as a peasant revolt, reflecting the socio-economic concerns that fueled its inception.
  • Historical Roots: The roots of LWE in India can be traced back to the Telangana peasant rebellion, which occurred from 1946 to 1951. 
  • However, the movement gained prominence in 1967 when peasants, landless laborers, and Adivasis (tribal people) raided a landlord's granaries in Naxalbari, West Bengal.

Government Initiatives To Fight LWE

  • Operation Green Hunt: It was started in 2009-10 and massive deployment of security forces was done in the Naxal-affected areas
  • Aspirational Districts Programme: Launched in 2018, it aims to rapidly transform the districts that have shown relatively lesser progress in key social areas.
  • SAMADHAN: Doctrine is the one-stop solution for the LWE problem. It encompasses the entire strategy of government from short-term policy to long-term policy formulated at different levels.
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