INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – International Organization)

News-CRUX-10     17th November 2023        
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Context: The UN's top court recently ruled that Syria must halt its torture program, a decision addressing the first international case related to the brutal civil war that commenced in 2011, causing widespread human rights abuses.


International Court of Justice (ICJ)

  • Established: In 1945 under the UN Charter.
  • Headquarters: Hague, Netherlands.
  • Function: To settle legal disputes between states and to provide advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by UN bodies and specialized agencies. Every year the Court submits a report on its activities to the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Composition: The Court is composed of 15 judges elected by the UN General Assembly and the UN Security Council (UNSC).
  • Functions:

oIt provides advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by United Nations organs and specialized agencies (advisory proceedings).

oParties to contentious cases are limited to States that are both members of the United Nations and have become parties to the Statute of the Court, or those that have accepted its jurisdiction under specific conditions.

oICJ discharges its duties as a full court but, at the request of the parties, it may also establish ad hoc chambers to examine specific cases.

Indian Judges at the ICJ Judge

  • Dalveer Bhandari: Member of the Court since 27 April 2012 
  • Raghunandan Swarup Pathak: 1989-1991 
  • Nagendra Singh: 1973-1988 Sir Benegal Rau: 1952-1953
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