Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env and Eco)

News-CRUX-10     15th November 2023        
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Context: The recently adopted Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) marks a significant milestone for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as it enters its 31st year.


Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • About: It was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (the Rio "Earth Summit") and entered into force in 1993. 
  • Members: 196 Parties 
  • India is a party to the convention.
  • The USA is the only UN member state which has not ratified the Convention.
  • Secretariat: Montreal, Canada. 
  • It is an international legally binding treaty with three main goals:
  • Conservation of biological diversity.
  • Sustainable use of the components of the Biodiversity.
  • The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.


Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF)

  • Adoption of the KMGBF: The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the "Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework" (GBF).
  • Four Goals & 23 Targets: The GBF comprises four overarching goals and 23 specific targets to be achieved by 2030.
  • Location: COP15 took place in Montreal, Canada.
  • Protecting 30% of the Planet: Through the KMGBF, participating countries committed to safeguarding 30 percent of the planet's biodiversity by 2030.
  • Ecosystem Restoration; Countries vowed to attain the 23 GBF targets aimed at reversing ecosystem degradation, and securing the survival of the natural world.
  • Subsidy Reduction: Under the GBF, countries also agreed to reduce harmful government subsidies by 2025 and to increase international financial flows from developed to developing countries, aiming for at least $20 billion by 2025 and $30 billion by 2030.
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