BIOGAS (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env & Eco)

News-CRUX-10     5th September 2023        

Context: The private firm Reliance Industries recently announced its plans to set up 100 compressed biogas (CBG) plants. Adani Group's Adani Total Gas is planning to set up five CBG plants in the next five years with more to follow in future.

Compressed Biogas (CBG)

  • About: It is a mixture of Methane (CH4), Carbon-dioxide (CO2) and small quantities of other gases.  A highly purified biogas comprising of up to 90% methane with high calorific value, a perfect green renewable automotive fuel.
  • Produced by: Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter in an oxygen-free environment. 
  • The precise composition of biogas depends on the type of feedstock and the production method used. 
  • Usage: As cooking and lighting fuel; and the left over slurry serves as an enriched manure
  • India is the pioneer of biogas. The first bio-gas plant was set up in 1897.
  • Less emission: It produces 20-60 percent less emissions in comparison to fossil fuels.
  • Reduced import: On imported Liquid Natural Gas, hence saving the forex reserves.
  • Green source: Generated from the bio-waste sources like agricultural residue, cattle dung, filter cake.
  • Benefits: Helps farmer in enhancing their income, enhance infrastructure development leading to rural development, job creation among others – making it a classic case of sustainable development.

oCBG is also being considered to produce Green Hydrogen and could be used as a replacement for Piped Natural Gas for domestic use.