Various initiatives to fight climate change

Mains Marks Booster     31st July 2023        

COP 27 of UNFCCC- Long Term Low emission Development strategy

  • India recently submitted its Long-Term Low Emission Development Strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) during the 27th Conference of Parties (COP27). 
  • The 27th Conference of Parties (COP27) was an "implementation" conference, focusing on outstanding questions on climate finance. 
  • Developed countries committed to providing financial support to developing countries for transitioning to low-carbon development and adapting to climate change impacts.

Introduction : LTLED is a strategic plan adopted by countries to transition to a low-carbon economy and achieve sustainable development goals by reducing emissions, promoting renewable energy, and adopting sustainable practices.

Objectives and key pillars

Key highlights

  • Expansion of Forest Area: India has enhanced forest and tree cover alongside economic growth and is a net sink, absorbing 15% of CO2 emissions in 2016. 
  • NDC Fulfilment: It is on track to fulfill its NDC commitment of additional carbon sequestration in forest and tree cover by 2030.
  • Phase out of Fossil Fuels: It includes increased use of biofuels, electric vehicles, and green hydrogen in the transport sector.
  • Resilient Urban Development: Smart city initiatives, integrated planning of cities, effective green building codes, and innovative waste management
  • Sustainable Capital: The provision of climate finance by developed countries is crucial for the successful implementation of the low-carbon development strategy.

Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs):

  • India's NDCs include concrete targets to reduce emissions. The updated NDC commits to deriving half of India's electricity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030 and reducing emissions intensity by 45% below 2005 levels by 2030.

Advancing climate action: Regional perspectives

  • European Union (EU): The EU has made relatively better progress in cutting emissions, with the United Kingdom halving its emissions from 1990 levels.
  • United States (USA): The USA has been a laggard, cutting emissions by only 7% from 2005 levels by 2020. The new administration has signalled commitment by re-joining the Paris Agreement and proposing ambitious emission reduction targets.
  • China: As the world's largest emitter, China's efforts are crucial. It has made progress in renewables and energy efficiency, but rapid economic growth increased emissions. China aims to peak emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.
  • Developing Countries: They face challenges in transitioning to low-carbon development due to limited resources and competing priorities. They require financial and technical support from developed countries for climate measures.

Future potential

  • Renewable Energy: The future lies in adopting solar, wind, and hydropower, given their advancing technology and decreasing costs.
  • Energy Efficiency: Investing in energy-efficient technologies and practices across sectors can significantly cut emissions.
  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Advancements in CCS can capture and store CO2 emissions from power plants and industries.
  • Nature-Based Solutions: Protecting and restoring natural ecosystems helps absorb carbon dioxide, aiding climate mitigation and adaptation.

Way forward

  • Green Hydrogen Production: 
    • Develop technologies for producing green hydrogen using renewable energy sources.
    • Utilize green hydrogen as a clean fuel for transportation, power generation, and industries, reducing carbon emissions.
  • Circular Economy Initiatives: 
    • Promote circular economy principles to minimize waste and maximize resource efficiency. 
    • Encourage recycling, upcycling, and waste-to-energy projects to reduce environmental impact.
  • Biochar Production and Utilization: Promote biochar as a soil amendment to enhance fertility and carbon sequestration, utilizing biomass waste to create sustainable solutions for agriculture, waste management, and renewable energy.
  • Distributed Renewable Energy Systems: 
    • Encourage decentralized and community-based renewable energy systems, such as microgrids and rooftop solar installations. 
    • Improve energy access in remote areas and reduce transmission losses.
  • Climate-Smart Cities: 
    • Develop climate-smart cities by integrating advanced technologies, data analytics, and resilient urban planning. 
    • Implement energy-efficient buildings, intelligent transportation systems, and green infrastructure.

Conclusion: Funding and global cooperation are crucial for successfully implementing India's LTLED strategy, which aims to transition toward a sustainable and low-carbon future. India's focus on renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture, and nature-based solutions will contribute to combating climate change and creating a greener, more resilient world.


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