Mains Marks Booster     4th August 2023        

Features of fascism

  • Fascism is a far-right authoritarian political ideology that emerged in the early 20th century and rose to prominence after World War I in several nations, notably Italy, Germany, and Japan.
  • It refers to a mass political movement that emphasizes extreme nationalism, militarism, and the supremacy of both the nation and the single, powerful leader over the individual citizen.

Reasons for Rise of Fascism

  • Post war disappointment for Italy: not receiving control over Yugoslavia and Albania despite its significant contributions during World War I.
  • Weak or ineffective democratic institutions: desire for a strong, decisive, charismatic leader.
  • Extreme Nationalism and identity crises: revival of lost glory.
  • Reaction against communism and socialism
  • War induced Economic crises, followed by Great Depression in the 1930s, high unemployment rates, poverty, and social inequality created a fertile ground for the rise of fascism.
  • Propaganda and manipulation: Fascist movements utilized mass media, rallies, and charismatic leaders to disseminate their ideologies, control the narrative, and mobilize support.
  • Fear and insecurity: Fascist movements exploited societal fears and insecurities to gain support, coupled with weak political opposition.

 Outcomes of Fascism

  • Economic growth: Wheat production, high birth rate, Public works programmes, Land reclamation, Industrial growth was encouraged, however resource shortage was still a challenge.
  • World War II: was due to the hyper-nationalism and racial superiority ideologies to gain control over Europe and the world.
  • Rampant corruption & suppression.
  • Great Depression: The Great Depression led to huge debts, unemployment and bank crisis.
  • Failure of government: to provide social services.


Fascism is still a field where no objective analysis exists mainly due to the horrific nature of these regimes, but it is generally regarded as a reactionary policy and saw relevance only during the interwar period. Since the World war a few cases of fascism has been seen in Peron's Argentina, Salazar's Portugal etc.

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