Mains Marks Booster     4th August 2023        


  • Political and economical ideology that aims to establish a society based on a socioeconomic order of common ownership of resources and advocates the absence of all forms of social class, money and state.
  • Based on Karl Marx's ideas outlined in "The Communist Manifesto."

Types of Communism

  • Marxism: Perspective with differing sub-perspectives, critiquing capitalist society.
  • Marxism-Leninism: Emerged in the 1920s, associated with Joseph Stalin, building on Marx and Lenin's ideas, serving as the foundation for Soviet Communism.
  • Stalinism: Joseph Stalin's vision of Communism, associated with a personality cult, secret police, and totalitarianism.
  • Trotskyism: Supported by Leon Trotsky, emphasising international proletarian revolution and true dictatorship.
  • Luxemburgism: Based on Rosa Luxemburg's texts, diverging from Lenin and Trotsky on democratic centralism, emphasising people's involvement and opposing authoritarianism.
  • Maoism: Derived from Mao Zedong's teachings, practised in the People's Republic of China, introducing ideas like Social-Imperialism, mass line, people's war, and new democracy.

Positive Impact of Communism

  • Equality and Social Justice: Communism aims to create a classless society, promoting equality and social justice by redistributing wealth and resources more equitably among all members of society.
  • Collective Ownership and Control: Means of production is owned and controlled by the community, ensuring that everyone has access to basic necessities and reduced disparities in wealth and power.
  • Elimination of Exploitation: Communism seeks to create a system where workers have more control over their labor and the fruits of their labor.

Negative Impact of Communism

  • Suppression of individual freedoms: Limitations on freedom of speech, expression, and dissent under communist regimes curtail personal liberties.
  • Economic inefficiencies: Centralized planning and state control hinder innovation, productivity, and market mechanisms, leading to reduced economic efficiency.
  • Lack of political pluralism: Communist systems stifle political competition, restrict multiple parties, and suppress diverse viewpoints, limiting political pluralism.
  • Human rights violations: Communist regimes associated with abuses like repression, censorship, forced labor, and curtailed civil liberties.
  • Economic equality at the expense of individual prosperity: Emphasis on economic equality can hinder personal prosperity and incentives for individual achievements in favor of collective goals.

Negative Impact of Communism