YAOUNDE DECLARATION (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     11th March 2024        
output themes

Context: In a historic gathering in Cameroon’s capital Yaoundé, African health ministers, global malaria partners, funding agencies, scientists, civil society organisations and other principal malaria stakeholders pledged to end malaria deaths, especially given the tools and systems available.


Yaounde Declaration

  • About: Health ministers from the 11 countries declared their commitment to fighting malaria in the Yaoundé Declaration, emphasizing the need to address root causes and increase investments in the health sector.
  • Host by: WHO and the Government of Cameroon, gathered diverse stakeholders, including Ministers of Health, global partners, funding agencies, scientists, and civil society organizations.
  • Four Key Aims of the Ministerial Conference: The conference aims to review progress and challenges in achieving WHO global malaria strategy targets, discuss funding and mitigation strategies, agree on responses for accelerated malaria mortality reduction in Africa, and establish a roadmap for increased political commitment and societal engagement with clear accountability.
  • Global Surge in Malaria Cases: The number of malaria cases globally surged significantly in 2022, rising from 233 million in 2019 to 249 million.
  • Alarming Increase in Africa: The African region witnessed a staggering rise in malaria cases, soaring from 218 million to 233 million, with Africa bearing 94% of global cases and 95% of global malaria-related deaths in 2022.
  • The Burden African Countries: Eleven African countries participating in the Yaoundé conference bear the highest burden of global malaria infections and deaths.

oBurkina Faso, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania

  • Action and Accountability: While the declaration marks a milestone, experts emphasize the need for concrete actions to accompany political will, especially in light of the African Union's targets to control and eliminate malaria by 2030.

Malaria 

  • About: It is a mosquito-borne blood disease caused by Plasmodium parasites.
  • Transmission: Spread by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito.

oThe mosquito becomes infected by biting an individual already infected with malaria.

oMalaria parasites enter the bloodstream when the mosquito subsequently bites another person.

oThe parasites travel to the liver, mature, and then infect red blood cells.

  • Parasite Species: There are 5 Plasmodium parasite species causing malaria in humans.

oThe most threatening species are P. falciparum and P. vivax.

  • Common symptoms: Fever, shaking chills, headache, muscle aches, and tiredness.
  • Prevention: Malaria is both preventable and curable with timely and appropriate intervention.
Samadhaan