Global Navigation Satellite System (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     11th March 2024        

Context: The Road Transport and Highways Minister recently announced in Parliament that the government intends to deploy a new highway toll collection system based on the global navigation satellite system before the onset of the model code of conduct for the 2024 election.

Global Navigation Satellite System

  • About: A GNSS constitutes a network of satellites that broadcast timing and orbital data, serving the purpose of navigation and positioning measurements.
  • GNSS measures three things:  

oLocation: accurate within millimeters 

oSpeed: User range rate error (URRE) of ≤0.006 m/sec over any 3-second period

oTiming: ≤30 nanoseconds (billionths of a second)

  • Beyond Earth's Orbit: GNSS encompasses more than just orbiting satellites. Constellations, comprised of multiple satellite groups, broadcast signals to both master control stations and GNSS users globally.
  • Three Key Segments: GNSS comprises three integral segments – space, control, and user. This holistic approach recognizes the satellites in space, control stations, and end-users as interconnected components within the GNSS framework.

Several GNSS constellations around the world

1.BeiDou – China

2.Galileo – European Union

3.GLONASS – Russia

4.GPS - United States

5.IRNSS – India (also known as NavIC)

6.QZSS – Japan