UNSC REFORM (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – Internation relations)

News-CRUX-10     20th September 2023        

Context: United Nations Secretary (UNSC)-General Antonio Guterres recently gave a clarion call to reform the UN Security Council “in line with the world of today” and based on equity, telling leaders that the 15-nation body reflects the political and economic realities of 1945 and risks becoming part of the problem instead of solving it.

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

  • About: It is one of the six principal organsof the United Nations (UN).
  • Formation: By the UN Charter in 1945.
  • Objective: Primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • Members: 15 (5 permanent + 10 non-permanent members).
  • Headquarter: New York, USA.
  • UNSC Presidency: Held by each of the 15 members in turn for one month, based on English alphabetical order.

o Eligibility for presidency: Both permanent and non-permanent members are eligible for the UNSC presidency.

o India as a non-permanent member: 8 times. The latest membership was for the year 2021-22.

UNSC Reform: Meaning

  • The aim for UNSC reforms encompasses: Reform in categories of membership (permanent, non-permanent)èQuestion of the veto held by the five permanent membersèRegional representationèSize of an enlarged Council and its working methodsèRelationship between UNSC & UNGA etc.

Need of UNSC Refrom:

  • To make it effective, authoritative, and better able to serve all the member states and people of the world.
  • To reflect present geopolitical realities.
  • Democratic deficit: Ensuring representation of large number of developing nations.
  • Non representative: Regions like far East Asia, South America, Africa have no representation in the permanent membership.
  • Misuse of veto power: The veto is not a right, but rather a privilege unfairly used according to their national interests.