NAGORNO-KARABAKH REGION (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – International Relations)

News-CRUX-10     20th September 2023        
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Context: Azerbaijan has launched what it called “anti-terrorist activities” in the breakaway region of Nagorno-Karabakh, stressing that the offensive would only target military structures.


Nagorno-Karabakh Region

  • About: It is a disputed territory between Azerbaijan and Armenia, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. Although most of it has been governed by the unrecognised Republic of Artsakh (also known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic [NKR]) since the first Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988-94). 

oIt is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Syunik, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. 

Azerbaijan: It is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region.

  • Bordered by: Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south. 
  • Capital: Baku and is the largest city.

Armenia: It is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region.

  • Bordered by: Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor (under a Russian peacekeeping force) and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
  • Capital: Yerevan, and is the largest city and the financial centre.
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