News-CRUX-10     14th November 2023        
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Context: Recently, India urged Canada to enhance its legal framework to curb the "misuse" of freedom of expression, preventing the incitement of violence and activities of extremist groups. This call was made during the review of Canada's human rights record at the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC).

  • The message was delivered at the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) process, under which member states of the United Nations undergo periodic evaluation of their human rights record.\


  • About: The Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system.
  • History: The UNHRC replaced the former UN Commission on Human Rights.
  • Establishment: The UNGA on March 15, 2006, and held its inaugural session in June 2006.
  • Headquarters: Geneva
  • Composition of Council: 47 UN Member States elected by majority vote in a direct and secret ballot at the UNGA.
  • Membership is based on equitable geographical distribution.
  • India is currently a council member.

Universal Periodic Review (UPR)

  • About: The UPR is a distinctive process that entails periodic reviews of the human rights records of all 193 UN Member States.
  • Cyclical Evaluations: Since its inaugural meeting in April 2008, every one of the 193 UN member States has undergone three reviews within the first, second, and third UPR cycles.
  • Objective: The ultimate goal of this mechanism is to enhance the human rights situation globally and confront human rights violations wherever they manifest. Remarkably, there is no other universal mechanism of this nature currently in existence.
  • UPR for India: The trio of country representatives acting as rapporteurs ("troika") for India's review consists of delegates from Sudan, Nepal, and the Netherlands.