UNCTAD (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – International Organization)

News-CRUX-10     24th February 2024        

Context: United Nations’s trade and development body has raised an alarm over escalating disruptions in shipping routes for global trade in a new report.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 

  • About: UNCTAD is a permanent intergovernmental body established by the United Nations General Assembly.
  • Objective: Its objective is to assist developing countries, especially the least developed countries, and countries with economies in transition, to integrate beneficially into the global economy.
  • Focus: on four main areas: trade and development, investment and enterprise, technology and innovation, and macroeconomics and development policies.
  • Founded in: In 1964. 
  • Headquarter: Located in Geneva, Switzerland. 
  • Relation with UN: UNCTAD is part of the UN Secretariat. 

oIt reports to the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council.

oWe are also part of the United Nations Development Group.

  • Flagship Reports by UNCTAD:

oTechnology and Innovation Report 2023

oReview of Maritime Transport 2023.

oEconomic Development in Africa Report 2023.

oWorld Investment Report 2023.

oThe Least Developed Countries Report 2023.

oCommodities and Development Report 2023. 

oDigital Economy Report 2021.


  • About: Arsenic, a tasteless and odorless metalloid, occurs naturally in the earth's crust and groundwater.
  • Toxicity: In its inorganic form, arsenic is highly toxic, leading to arsenic poisoning with severe health consequences.
  • Arsenic-affected areas: Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh (UP).
  • Health Implications: Arsenicosis, characterized by the accumulation of high arsenic levels, results in adverse health effects, potentially causing multi-system organ failure and death.


  • About: Fluoride, a mineral, is naturally present in many foods and available as a dietary supplement. Fluoride is the ionic form of the element fluorine,
  • Varieties of Fluoride: The ailment manifests in dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and non-skeletal fluorosis, each affecting different tissues in the body.