NETAJI SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – History)

News-CRUX-10     8th January 2024        

Context: Leaders like Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose are “immortal” and do not need bestowing of a recognition through a judicial diktat, the Supreme Court said recently.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose

  • About: Subhas Chandra Bose, an Indian nationalist leader, played a pivotal role in the country's struggle for independence against British colonial rule.
  • Early Life: Born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Orissa, Bose showed early signs of leadership and commitment to the cause of India's freedom.
  • Entry into Civil Service and Resignation: In 1920, Bose successfully passed the civil service examination but chose to resign from his position in April 1921 after learning about the nationalist unrest in India.
  • Association with Indian National Congress: Joining the Indian National Congress, Bose actively engaged in the Indian independence movement and initially collaborated with C.R. Das in Bengal.
  • Congress Presidency and Resignation: Despite being elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, Bose resigned due to ideological conflicts with Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Formation of Forward Bloc: In 1939, Bose established the Forward Bloc, an organization aimed at uniting all anti-British forces in India.
  • World War II and International Alliances: At the onset of World War II, Bose sought alliances with the Soviet Union, Germany, and Japan, to attack British forces in India.
  • Formation of Indian National Army (INA): With Japanese assistance, Bose reorganized and led the Indian National Army, comprised of Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from Southeast Asia, against British forces.
  • Azad Hind Government and INA Battles: Securing Japanese support in various forms, Bose formed the Azad Hind Government in exile and led the INA in battles against the Allies at Imphal and in Burma.
  • Mysterious Death: Subhas Chandra Bose is believed to have died on August 18, 1945, in a plane crash over Taiwan. The circumstances surrounding his death remain shrouded in mystery and controversy.