News-CRUX-10     25th September 2023        

Context: Recently, Ethnic Armenian refugees have started departing from Nagorno-Karabakh, marking the first exodus since Azerbaijan initiated an offensive aimed at capturing the breakaway territory and potentially resolving a long-standing three-decade conflict.

Nagorno-Karabakh Region

  • About: It is a disputed territory between Azerbaijan and Armenia, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan. 
  • Governed by: The unrecognized Republic of Artsakh (also known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic [NKR]) since the first Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988-94).
  • It is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Syunik, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.


  • About:  It is a transcontinental country located at the boundary of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the South Caucasus region.
  • Bordered by: Caspian Sea to the east, Russia (Republic of Dagestan) to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the west, and Iran to the south.
  • Capital: Baku and is the largest city.


  • About: It is a landlocked country located in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region.
  • Bordered by: Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor (under a Russian peacekeeping force) and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south.
  • Capital: Yerevan, and is the largest city and the financial centre.