LYME DISEASE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     15th March 2024        

Context: A case of Lyme disease has been recently reported in the Ernakulam district of Kerala.

Lyme Disease

  • About: It is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.
  • Transmission: Primarily transmitted through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, also known as deer ticks.
  • Lyme Disease Cannot Spread:

oHuman-to-Human Transmission: It does not spread between humans.

oPet-to-Human Transmission: It cannot be transmitted from pets to humans.

oAir, Food, or Water: It doesn't spread through air, food, or water.

oNot Transmitted by Other Insects: Lice, mosquitoes, fleas, and flies do not transmit Lyme disease.

  • Symptoms: Early symptoms typically appear 3 to 30 days after an infected tick bite.

oManifestations include fever, headache, fatigue, and the distinctive "bull's-eye" red rash called erythema migrans (EM).

oEM serves as a crucial sign for early diagnosis and management.

  • Treatment:

oStandard Antibiotic Treatment: Antibiotics such as doxycycline or amoxicillin are standard treatments, especially in early stages.

  • Advanced Cases: Intravenous antibiotics may be required in later stages.
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