INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT (ICC) (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env and Eco)

News-CRUX-10     2nd April 2024        

Context: Recently, a group of universities has penned a joint note urging the International Criminal Court (ICC) to intervene, highlighting the close connection between environmental degradation and human suffering.

International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • Establishment: In 2002 pursuant to the multilateral Rome Statute.
  • Headquarter: The Hague, Netherlands.
  • About: It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes like - genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression.
  • Members: 123 countries. Countries like – India, China and Pakistan have not signed the treaty and not a party.
  • Jurisdiction: The ICC’s jurisdiction is limited only to natural persons (unlike the International Court of Justice, which hears disputes between states) with minimum age of the alleged perpetrator should be 18 years at the time of the commission of the crime.
  • Relation with UN: The ICC is not part of the UN. The Rome Statute was negotiated within the UN; however, it created an independent judicial body distinct from the UN.

Right to a Healthy Environment (R2hE)

  • About: The right to a healthy environment, advocated by human rights and environmental organizations, aims to safeguard ecological systems crucial for human health.
  • Acknowledged by: United Nations Human Rights Council in October 2021 and the United Nations General Assembly on July 28, 2022, this right gained significant international recognition.
  • Interconnection with Health Rights: This right is intricately linked with other health-focused human rights, such as the right to water and sanitation, the right to food, and the right to health.