INDUSTRY 4.0 (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Economy)

News-CRUX-10     20th December 2023        
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Context: Under the scheme “Enhancement of Competitiveness in the Indian Capital Goods Sector”, Ministry of Heavy Industries (MHI) is providing financial assistance to the Project Implementing Organizations (PIOs) and the Industry Associations for organization of seminars, training programmes and workshops to increase awareness about Industry 4.0 amongst the Indian manufacturing industries.

Industry 4.0 (4IR):

  • Meaning: Also known as Globalisation 4.0, it is formed by technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML) and the internet of things (IoT) according to the World Economic Forum (WEF).

o It is revolutionizing the way companies manufacture, improve and distribute their products integrating these technologies.

  • Introduced by: The term was first coined by the German government in 2011.
  • Stages of Industrial Revolution:

o 1st revolution (End of 18th C.): Moving from manual to mechanical by harnessing steam and water power, replacing raw muscle. Ex.: - Steam Engine, Cotton gin, Power loom etc.

o 2nd revolution (Start of 20th C.): Took advantage of electricity and the assembly line to generate mass production.

o 3rd revolution (Start of 1970s): In this, digital and applied electronics and information technology to processes of production. Mass customisation and additive manufacturing, the so-called ‘3D printing’.

o4th revolution (Present): It is the revolution in which the physical world, the digital world, and the virtual world are colliding together, creating smart products, procedures and processes, and smart factories. This is based on primarily cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things to create a highly intelligent, integrated, and automated manufacturing ecosystem that spans far beyond the traditional “factory floor.”