INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – History)

News-CRUX-10     16th December 2023        
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Context: A group of geologists from Kerala University claim to have made a significant scientific discovery that may offer a clearer understanding of the events leading to the end of the Indus Valley civilization.

oThey have claimed that the crater in Luna, Kutch in Gujarat, was caused by a meteor impact, potentially marking the only major one since human beings appeared on earth.

 Indus Valley Civilization

  • About: The civilization is named Harappan because Dayaram Sahni first excavated its site in 1921.
  • Harappan civilization surpassed the sizes of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia civilizations.
  • Bordered by

oThe northernmost site of the civilization is Manda (Jammu-Kashmir).

oThe southernmost site is Daimabad (Maharashtra).

oThe easternmost site is Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh).

oThe westernmost site is Sutkagendor (Pakistan-Iran border).

  • Main Crops: Two types of Wheat and Barley. Evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and Rangpur (Gujarat) only.
  • Other Crops: Dates, mustard, sesamum, cotton, rai, peas etc.

oFirst to produce cotton in the world so Greeks called them Sindon.


  • Town Planning: Indus cities were well planned. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have shown a lot of evidence of this. The city had two parts, i.e., the citadel and the outer city. 
  • Citadel: The citadel was built on an elevated area. While certain major cities, such Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Banawali, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, and Dholavira, had a citadel and lower town, this was not the case in the majority of them. 

oThe outer city was at a lower level.  

  • Roads: The roads were wide and straight cutting each other at right angles.
  • Great Bath: The Great Bath is one of the most remarkable structures discovered at the archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro.
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