INDO-GANGETIC PLAIN (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – Geography)

News-CRUX-10     28th November 2023        

Context: Recently, agricultural scientists have suggested that the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of north India could alleviate its annual smog issue by adopting eco-friendly farming practices observed in south India's Cauvery basin, including mulching and nitrogen-fixing.

  • One of the major causes of smog formation over the IGP is burning of paddy stubble.

Indo-Gangetic Plain

  • About: The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also referred to as the North Indian River Plain, is a vast and fertile expanse covering approximately 700 thousand km2 (172 million acres). 
  • Geographic Extent: Encompassing major portions of modern-day northern and eastern India, eastern Pakistan, Bangladesh, and the southern plains of Nepal, the Indo-Gangetic Plain holds geographical significance. The region is alternatively known as the Indus–Ganga Plain.
  • Rivers and Urban Areas: Named after the prominent Indus and Ganges rivers, the plain is characterized by the presence of these significant water bodies. 
  • Moreover, the Indo-Gangetic Plain is dotted with large urban areas, including several notable cities.
  • Boundaries: The northern boundary of the plain by Himalayas, the southern edge of the Indo-Gangetic Plain is defined by the Deccan Plateau.


  • About: It is the largest river in the Karnatka state.
  • Known as:  Dakshina Ganga (the Ganges of the South) and considered one of the sacred rivers of India.
  • Origin: Bramahagiri Hills near Madikeri in Coorg.
  • Tributaries: Harangi, Hemavathi, Lakshmanatirtha, Kabini, Shimsha, Arkavati, Suvarnavathi or Honnuholé,  Bhavani, Lokapavani, Noyyal.