EARTH OBSERVATION DATA (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     8th May 2024        
output themes

Context: Earth observation data can generate over USD 3 trillion in economic benefits globally and help eliminate two gigatonnes of greenhouse gas emissions annually by 2030, according to a new report by the World Economic Forum.

Earth Observation Data

  • About: It is a unique source of commensurable information. It can be combined with administrative, social and economic data at multiple scales for in-depth policy analysis.
  • High-Resolution Dataset 

o High Resolution: The dataset offers a high-resolution of 38 meters.

o Temporal Coverage: It provides multi-temporal data spanning from 1975 to present, updated yearly since 2017.

o Built-Up Area Extent: Measures the extent of built-up areas and the timing of their development.

  • Applications of Built-Up Area Data

o Regional Summaries: The data provides summaries of built-up areas by administrative regions.

o Impact Assessment: Useful for assessing the impacts of land use policies.

o Urbanization Patterns: Helps understand local, regional, and global patterns of urbanization.

Key Point of Report

  • Environmental monitoring – satellites and aircraft-borne sensors can monitor CO2 and methane emissions, pinpoint emissions sources like oil and gas pipeline leaks;
  • Early warning – EO can be used to better characterise wildfire risk and to spot wildfires faster among others; 
  • Shipping route optimisation; 
  • Precision agriculture, including monitoring plant health and nutrient uptake from soil; 
  • Supply chain monitoring to detect illegal deforestation, etc.

Earth Observation

  • About: It involves the use of remote sensing technologies to monitor land, marine, and atmosphere.
  • Satellite-based Imaging: EO utilizes satellite-mounted payloads to collect imaging data about the Earth's characteristics.
  • Data Processing: The collected images are processed and analyzed to extract various types of information for diverse applications.