News-CRUX-10     3rd October 2023        

Context: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the worldwide incidence of cholera cases in 2022 has doubled in comparison to the previous year, signaling a concerning rise in the disease's prevalence.

  • According to the report, most cholera cases continue to be reported from Africa and Asia, with Europe accounting for a few “imported cases.

Cholera Disease

  • About: A life-threatening infectious disease and a public health hazard.
  • Caused by: An acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (Bacterial disease).
  • Symptoms: Profuse watery diarrhea, Vomiting, and Leg cramps.
  • Transmission: A person may get cholera by drinking water or eating food contaminated with the cholera bacterium.

oThe disease can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water.

  • Vaccine: Currently there are three WHO pre-qualified oral cholera vaccines (OCV), Dukoral, Shanchol, and Euvichol-Plus.

oAll three vaccines require two doses for full protection.

oIt is not covered in the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP).