CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – History)

News-CRUX-10     5th December 2023        
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Context: The Prime Minister of Indiai unveiled the statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at Rajkot Fort, Sindhudurg, Maharashtra. 

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

  • Founder: Maratha Empire in western India, carving out his own independent kingdom from the declining Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.
  • Early Life: Shivaji was born in the hill-fort of Shivneri, near the city of Junnar, which is now in Pune district.
  • Family: Shivaji's father, Shahaji Bhonsle, was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanates His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed.
  • Titles: Shakakarta, Kshatriya Kulavantas and Haindava Dharmodhhaarak.
  • Conflict with Bijapur: Shivaji's father, Shahaji, served as a general in the Bijapuri Sultanate, which was a collaborative alliance involving Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda.
  • Shivaji's rising power under Bijapur, seizing lands for his own, rattled Sultan Mohammed Adil Shah, leading to Shahaji's imprisonment in 1648.
  • Battle of Pavan Khind: It was a rearguard last stand that took place on 13 July 1660, at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur by the Maratha against the Bijapur Sultanate.
  • Battle of Purandar, 1665: Fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire.
  • Administration of Shivaji: It was assisted by a council of ministers called Ashtapradhan (eight ministers).
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