BHOJ WETLAND (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env & Eco)

News-CRUX-10     15th September 2023        
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Context: Recently, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) ordered Madhya Pradesh government to stop the operation of cruise vessels as well as other motor-propelled boats in the Bhoj wetland.

Bhoj Wetland

  • Dual Reservoirs: These lakes consist of two interconnected human-made reservoirs situated within Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Upper and Lower Lakes: The Upper Lake is locally referred to as Bhojtal or Bada Talaab, while the Lower Lake is known as Chhota Talaab.
  • Biodiversity Richness: These lakes boast significant biodiversity, particularly concerning macrophytes, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.
  • Diverse Fish Population: With over 15 different types of fish, the lakes are home to a variety of aquatic species, including vulnerable ones such as turtles, amphibians, and aquatic invertebrates.
  • Ramsar Designation: In 2002, these lakes were officially designated as Ramsar sites, recognizing their international importance for wetland conservation

    National Green Tribunal (NGT)

    • Established: Under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010.
    • Principal Place of Sitting: New Delhi
    • Other four place: Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai 
    • Composition: Chairperson, the Judicial Members, and the Expert Members.
    • Tenure: 5 years and are not eligible for reappointment.
    • Appointment: The Chairperson is appointed by the Central Government in consultation with the Chief Justice of India (CJI).
    • NGT is mandated to make disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of the filing of the same.
    • Important Facts About NGT:

    o The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or the Indian Evidence Act, 1872.

    o It shall be guided by principles of natural justice.

    o However, the Tribunal is vested with the powers of a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure for discharging its functions. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction.

    Ramsar Convention

    • Convention Signed: On 2nd February 1971 
    • Aim: To preserve the ecological character of their wetlands of international importance.
    • It is named after Ramsar, the Iranian city where the treaty was signed in 1971, and places chosen for conservation under it are given the tag ‘Ramsar site’.
    • India currently has 75 Ramsar sites.
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