Mains Marks Booster     3rd August 2023        


  • “So long as there are men, there will be wars.” - – Albert Einstein
  • “Not every war is worth fighting….” – Naushad

Just Conduct of War

  • Discrimination: Force must be directed at military targets only because civilians or non-combatants are innocent
  • Proportionality: Force should be proportional
  • Humanity: Force must not be directed ever against enemy personnel if they are captured, wounded or under control (prisoners of war).
  • Last Resort: All non- violent options must have been exhausted
  • Just Cause: The Purpose of war is to redress a wrong
  • Legitimate Authority: Lawfully constituted government of a sovereign state can declare war, rather than a private individual or group.
  • Right intention: War must be prosecuted on morally acceptable aims rather than revenge 
  • Reasonable prospect of success: War should not be fought in a hopeless cause Proportionality: Any response to an attack should be measured and proportionate

Way Forward:

  • International Cooperation to establish peace Ex. Recently, Israel and UAE  Normalization Agreement.
  • Compassionate view towards vulnerable sections Ex. UN Peace army to establish peace in African Countries
  • Mutual Agreement for long lasting peace 
  • End of arm race Ex. New Start Treaty between Russia and USA
  • Mutual respect for respective sovereignty


Mahabharata outlines the principles and contours in the conduct of a just war. Some rules propounded where armies were allowed to collect bodies, personnel could meet for negotiations etc.