Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 

Mains Marks Booster     5th August 2023        
Samadhaan

Introduction

Disasters pose significant threats to human lives, economies, and the environment, highlighting the urgent need for effective strategies to mitigate and manage their impact. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, endorsed by the UN General Assembly in 2015, stands as a global commitment to reducing disaster risk and enhancing resilience. With its emphasis on collaboration, shared responsibility, and the integration of disaster risk reduction across various agendas, the framework aims to create a safer and more sustainable world. 
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

Importance of the Sendai Framework

  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (Sendai Framework) was the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda and provides Member States with concrete actions to protect development gains from the risk of disaster.
  • The Sendai Framework is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015.
  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction is a crucial instrument that aligns with other key global agreements, including the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, the New Urban Agenda, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 
  • It acknowledges the need for substantial reductions in disaster risk and the protection of lives, livelihoods, and assets in the face of increasing vulnerabilities. 

Goals and Principles of the Sendai Framework 

  • The primary goal of the Sendai Framework is to substantially decrease disaster risk and associated losses in various sectors. 
  • It recognizes the pivotal role of the state in disaster risk reduction while advocating for shared responsibility among stakeholders, including local governments, the private sector, and communities. 
  • The framework emphasizes the integration of risk reduction into development planning and highlights the importance of promoting inclusivity, gender equality, and the participation of all sectors of society. 

Key Features and Priorities

  • Understanding Risk: The framework emphasizes the importance of risk assessment, data collection, and analysis to enhance the understanding of hazards, vulnerabilities, and capacities. It encourages the use of scientific knowledge and technological advancements in risk assessment processes. 
  • Disaster Risk Governance: Effective governance plays a vital role in disaster risk reduction. The framework promotes the development of national and local strategies, policies, and legislation to enhance risk governance and institutional coordination. 
  • Investing in Disaster Risk Reduction: The Sendai Framework highlights the significance of financial investments in disaster risk reduction and the importance of innovative mechanisms for financing resilience-building initiatives. It emphasizes the mobilization of resources from multiple sources and the integration of risk reduction into development planning. 
  • Enhancing Disaster Preparedness: Preparedness is crucial to reducing the impact of disasters. The framework emphasizes the need for early warning systems, efficient response mechanisms, and the strengthening of community resilience through education, awareness, and capacity-building initiatives. 

Implementation and Follow-Up

  • The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR) has been assigned the responsibility of supporting the implementation, follow-up, and review of the Sendai Framework. 
  • The framework encourages international cooperation, knowledge sharing, and the exchange of best practices to foster effective implementation at all levels. 

Conclusion

  • The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction stands as a milestone agreement, emphasizing the importance of collective efforts to reduce disaster risk and build resilience. 
  • By integrating disaster risk reduction across multiple agendas, including climate change, development, and urban planning, the framework paves the way for a safer and more sustainable future. 
  • With its comprehensive goals, principles, and priorities, the Sendai Framework serves as a blueprint for governments, communities, and stakeholders to work together in mitigating the impact of disasters and safeguarding lives and livelihoods.

The Comparison between Hyogo and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction


                  Hyogo framework

                Sendai framework 

  • Theme -Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters.
  • Focuses on disaster losses
  • Disaster losses focus more on minimizing impacts of disasters.
  • The Hyogo framework was the first plan which explained, described and detailed the work that is required from all different sectors and actors to reduce disaster losses
  • Focus on "the what"
  • Sets 5 priorities for action,1st 2 being governance and risk identification.
  • Theme-Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 
  • Focuses on disaster risks 
  • Disaster risk puts more effort into reducing the size of disasters.
  • Sendai framework recognises the state has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, private and other.
  • Focus on "the how "
  • Sets 4 priorities for action to implement

Similarities:

  • Sendai and Hyogo call for collaboration of people at the local level, fostering partnerships with the technological and private sectors to share good practices and support globally. 
  • They both focus on reducing global disaster mortality.
  • Multi-stakeholders and inclusive approach is also what Sendai and Hyogo focus on for natural hazards. 
  • Technically Hyogo and Sendai have the same goals and to emphasize on this Sendai added 7 Global targets to measure DRR (Disaster Risk  Reduction) in its framework.
  • Disaster Risk Reduction is the concept and practice of reducing disasters through systematic efforts to analyze the exposures of disasters.

Conclusion: In the mission of Disaster Risk Reduction, there is a need for collaboration by all entities, public and private, to strengthen the mechanisms for disaster risk reduction by using and sharing reliable and affordable modern technology for capacity building.

Coalition of Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI):

The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) is a groundbreaking international initiative designed to address the challenges of building resilience in infrastructure systems. It was launched by India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the United Nations Climate Action Summit in September 2019, with a goal to promote the resilience of new and existing infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks, thereby ensuring sustainable development.

Key Features of CDRI:

  • Multi-National Collaboration: CDRI is a global coalition, involving public and private sector entities, which aims to combine the efforts of a number of nations to build disaster-resilient infrastructure. As of 2021, many countries including Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, and Japan have become part of this initiative.
  • Scope and Focus: CDRI seeks to address the challenges of resilience in the context of both physical infrastructure (such as energy, water, transport, and telecommunications) and social infrastructure (such as health and education facilities).
  • Research and Technical Assistance: CDRI is poised to serve as a platform where member countries can exchange knowledge and leverage technology to make infrastructure more resilient against natural disasters. It includes scientific and engineering research, the development of standards, and providing technical assistance.
  • Capacity Building and Policy Making: One of CDRI's objectives is to help nations build their capacity and formulate policies for resilient infrastructure. This is achieved by establishing systems and frameworks that take into account disaster and climate risks in the design, construction, and operation of infrastructure.
  • Promotion of Investments: CDRI encourages investments in resilient infrastructure, recognizing the economic feasibility of such investments, and promoting the concept of "building back better" after disasters. It seeks to guide the private sector and multilateral development banks to incorporate risk-informed decision-making in their investment decisions.
  • Climate Change Adaptation: The CDRI also emphasizes the role of resilient infrastructure in adaptation to climate change, understanding that infrastructure will play a crucial role in either exacerbating the effects of climate change or mitigating them.

Conclusion: In a world where climate change is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of natural disasters, the need for resilient infrastructure cannot be overstated. The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI) stands as a crucial international initiative aiming to foster collaboration and knowledge sharing among member nations. Its comprehensive approach to resilience not only encompasses physical infrastructure but also the social infrastructure crucial to people's well-being. As it gains more support and evolves, the CDRI has the potential to greatly mitigate the impacts of disasters on global economies and communities, and shape a sustainable and resilient future.

Samadhaan