National Green Hydrogen Mission 

Mains Marks Booster     5th August 2023        
output themes

Introduction

The National Green Hydrogen Mission aims to incentivize the commercial production of green hydrogen in India and transform the country into a net exporter of this clean fuel. It encompasses various sub-schemes and targets the development of green hydrogen production capacity and renewable energy capacity. 

About the Mission

  • The mission focuses on demand creation, production, utilization, and export of Green Hydrogen.
  • It includes the Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition Programme (SIGHT), which supports domestic manufacturing of electrolyzers and green hydrogen production.
  • Additionally, the mission identifies and develops Green Hydrogen Hubs in states and regions capable of supporting large-scale production and utilization of hydrogen.
  • Nodal Ministry: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
About the Mission

Objectives

  • Develop green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 MMT (Million Metric Tonne) per annum by 2030.
  • Add renewable energy capacity of about 125 GW (gigawatt) in India by 2030.
  • Generate over Rs 8 lakh crore of investments and create six lakh jobs.
  • Reduce fossil fuel imports by over Rs 1 lakh crore and abate nearly 50 MT of annual greenhouse gas emissions. 

Significance

  • Decarbonization of industrial, mobility, and energy sectors.
  • Reduced dependence on imported fossil fuels and feedstock.
  • Development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities.
  • Creation of employment opportunities.
  • Advancement of efficient fuel cell technologies. 

Potential in India

  • India's favorable geographic location and abundance of sunlight and wind make it suitable for green hydrogen production.
  • Green hydrogen technologies are promoted in sectors where direct electrification is not feasible, such as heavy-duty, long-range transport, certain industrial sectors, and long-term storage in the power sector.
  • The nascent stage of the industry allows for the creation of regional hubs that export high-value green products and engineering services. 

Challenges

  • Economic Nascent stage of global green hydrogen development.
  • Lack of necessary infrastructure for executing intermediary steps.
  • sustainability of extracting green hydrogen for commercial use, particularly for transportation fuel cells. 

What is Green Hydrogen?

  • Hydrogen is an important industrial fuel used in various applications, but most hydrogen is currently produced from coal (black or brown hydrogen).
  • Green hydrogen is produced by passing electric current through water via electrolysis using renewable sources like wind or solar energy.
  • Colors attached to hydrogen indicate the source of electricity used, with green hydrogen derived from renewable sources.

What is Green Hydrogen?

Current Production and Need for Green Hydrogen

  • Green hydrogen currently accounts for less than 1% of global hydrogen production due to its high production cost compared to other types.
  • Green hydrogen is one of the cleanest energy sources, with almost zero emissions, and can be used in fuel cells for cars and energy-intensive industries.
  • Countries worldwide are focusing on developing green hydrogen capacity to enhance energy security and reduce carbon emissions. 

Way Forward

  • Incentives should be announced to encourage industrial hydrogen users to adopt green hydrogen.
  • Development of supply chains including pipelines, tankers, storage facilities, and distribution networks.
  • Implementation of a skill development program to train workers for the green hydrogen economy.
  • Leveraging low-cost renewable generating plants and experience from solar and wind auctions to reduce the cost of green hydrogen.
  • Exploiting the market potential and the young demography of India to drive the application of hydrogen-based technologies. 

Conclusion: National Green Hydrogen Mission holds immense potential for India to become a net exporter of green hydrogen. By developing a robust production capacity and renewable energy infrastructure, India can achieve significant reductions in fossil fuel imports, greenhouse gas emissions, and create job opportunities. Despite challenges in the nascent global market and economic sustainability, the adoption of green hydrogen is crucial for decarburization and energy security. With strategic interventions, investments, and supportive policies, India can pave the way towards a sustainable and clean energy future.

Samadhaan