Mains Marks Booster     3rd August 2023        
output themes
The United Nations describes inequality as “the state of not being equal, especially in status, rights and opportunities”.

Important Statistics


Dimensions of Inequality

  1. Economic Inequality: Focuses on disparities in income, wealth, and economic resources among individuals and groups resulting in unequal access to necessities, education, healthcare, and opportunities for economic mobility.
  2. Social Inequality: Disparities in social status, power, and privileges based on characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, caste, religion, or disability.
  3. Gender Inequality: It encompasses issues such as unequal pay, limited access to education and healthcare, gender-based violence, and limited representation in leadership and decision-making roles.
  4. Racial and Ethnic Inequality: It includes unequal access to education, employment, housing, healthcare, and systemic discrimination based on race or ethnicity.
  5. Educational Inequality: It includes differences in educational resources, infrastructure, teacher quality, and opportunities for higher education, which can contribute to perpetuating social and economic inequalities.
  6. Health Inequality: Factors such as socioeconomic status, race, gender, and geographical location can influence access to healthcare, health conditions, and life expectancy.
  7. Spatial Inequality: It can contribute to uneven economic growth, limited opportunities, and disparities in living conditions and access to services.
  8. Intergenerational Inequality: It reflects how a person's social and economic circumstances at birth can shape their opportunities and outcomes throughout their lives.

Different Aspects of Inequality in India

Measures to deal with Inequality

Way Forward:

  • Foster Collaboration: Encourage collaboration among social movements, organizations, and grassroots initiatives.
  • Policy Reforms: Advocate for policies promoting inclusive growth and equal access to opportunities.
  • Education and Awareness: Promote education and awareness to challenge prejudices and foster inclusivity.
  • Access to Quality Services: Advocate for equitable access to education, healthcare, and essential services.
  • Sustainable Development: Emphasize sustainable practices for balanced economic and environmental growth.
  • Address Digital Divide: Bridge the digital divide through digital literacy and expanded access to technology.


  • Inequality is a pressing issue that affects societies worldwide and has wide-ranging implications for individuals, communities, and nations as a whole. It encompasses various forms such as economic inequality, social inequality, gender inequality, racial inequality, and educational inequality. Addressing inequality is crucial for creating a just and equitable society and fostering sustainable development.