Disaster Management

Mains Marks Booster     4th August 2023        
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  • A disaster is a mishap or hazard which causes huge loss of life and property and disrupts the balance of the economy. It is a tragic event with drastic consequences for living beings as well as social and individual development. 
  • A disaster can be caused by either natural or man-made factors. Both these factors need to be taken care of to prevent a disaster or lessen its impact. 
  • Disasters also arise due to inefficient management of risks. If a safety net is devised to address the potential risks, it would lead to reduction in damages triggered by disasters. Developing countries are more vulnerable to disasters.

What is a Hazard? 

  • A hazard is any phenomena that has the potential to cause destruction to life and property. A hazard become a disaster when the potential to cause destruction is fulfilled. When there is harm to life and property of humans, the hazard is termed a disaster.
  • Hazards do not necessarily cause any destruction. If an earthquake was to hit a barren mountain with no human community, it would simply be a natural phenomenon; or a natural hazard. Hazards can be geological (the most common), biological (epidemics) or chemical (nuclear power plant leaks, chemical industry leaks, etc).
  • Thus, all disasters are hazards, but all hazards are not disasters.

 Classification of Disasters:

Classification of Disasters

Impact of Disaster:

Impact of Disaster

Disaster Risk Reduction in India Status Report 2020: Impact of Disasters

  • Between 1991 and 2005, disasters have already reduced India’s GDP by a total of 2 percent.
  • In the case of Kerala flooding 2018 , 1.4 million people had to be evacuated from the flood waters, the access to piped water was  disrupted to more than 6.7 million persons, and more than 3 million shallow wells became inoperable or contaminated across the six worst affected districts.
  • Indian Ocean Tsunami caused US$ 30 million in reconstruction costs to the health infrastructure and overwhelmed many areas in terms of their ability to provide care.
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