LAND REFORMS

Mains Enrichment Cards     6th September 2023        
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LAND REFORMS : REVISION CARD

INTRODUCTION: 

Need for Land reforms

At independence, India inherited a semi-feudal agrarian structure, marked by concentration of land in the hands of a few, high rents, exploitative tenancy contracts, and complete unwillingness to improve the land productivity. This called for land reforms post-independence.

 

Objectives of Land reforms

Land reforms in India were brought with objective of enhancing agriculture productivity by improving the economic conditions of farmers and tenants so that they may have the interest to invest in and improve agriculture.

Land Leasing

Land leasing & tenancy reform laws that various states adopted in the post-independence era sought to not only transfer ownership rights to the tenant but also prohibited or heavily discouraged leasing of land, impacting modern-day agriculture reforms.

FORMULA BY theIAShub

1) Land Redistribution Increased Agricultural Productivity Enhanced Livelihoods Rural Development

2) Land Tenure Security + Efficient Land Use = Viable-Profitable–Sustainable (VPS) Agriculture + Sustainable Economic Growth

SPEECH BY PROMINENT PERSONALITIES (PM, PRESIDENT, UN OFFICIAL et. al)/RECOGNITION IF ANY:

  • Agriculture is the soul of India, and land reforms are the soul's journey towards justice and progress: PM Modi
  • Land reforms are not just an economic necessity; they are a moral imperative:  Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
  • Our land is our heritage, and its rightful distribution is the cornerstone of a just and equitable society: Ex-VP M. Venkaiah Naidu

CURRENT DEVELOPMENT: 

  • The state government of Kerala established Pattaya Mission to tackle land record issues in the state
  • Karnataka State Legislative Council recently passed the Land Reforms (Amendment) Bill 2020.
  • NITI Aayog released Model Act and rules for states on land titling.

DATA/FACT:

Constitutional Amendment to operationalise Land reforms

1st amendment act in 1951, introduced 9th schedule to the constitution

Average size of operational holding in India

1.08 hectares (consistently declining since 1970 Agri Census, indicating greater fragmentation of land).

Small and marginal Farmers in India 

(<2 Hectares land)

More than 85% of the total land holdings. (Agri-Census 2015-16)

Landless labourers in India

55% of the total agriculture workforce (More than that of farmers (cultivators))

Female land holders

Less than 15% (despite feminization of agriculture).

India’s Competitive advantage

Largest arable land resource in the world (156 mn).

KEYWORDS:

  • BODY: Land reforms as commitment to empowerment; Agrarian Justice; Redistributive Justice, Land to the Tiller, Land reforms as rural Renaissance; Handkerchief Size Land Holding, Scale Neutral Technology; 
  • CONCLUSION: Soil of fairness and equality; From Band-aid solutions to Basket of "must reforms"

COMMITTEES RECOMMENDATIONS/NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL REPORTS:

  • Kumarappan Committee Swaminathan report, Expert Committee on Land Leasing headed by T Haque: All committees proposed land reforms through redistribution, tenancy reforms, community involvement and rural development to ensure equitable land distribution, enhance agricultural productivity, while safeguarding farmers' rights.

GOVT SCHEMES, POLICIES AND INITIATIVE:

  • Policies and legislations: Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013, Model Agricultural Land Leasing Act, 2016, Draft Model Contract Farming Act, 2018
  • Other Schemes: Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme; Swamitva Yojana, ULPIN number system for land parcels. 

EXAMPLES/CASE STUDIES:

  • Bhoomi Project in Karnataka: to digitize land records.
  • Andhra Pradesh state government tied up with Swedish firm to use blockchain technology to prevent property fraud.
  • Tamil Nadu: first state to pass Contract Farming Act, as per the central guidelines.

CONCLUSION

  • The unfinished agenda of land reforms must be expeditiously taken forward to ensure that equitable land relations give rise to a more harmonious production relations that shape a just and progressive agrarian order.
  • With an aspirational goal of India becoming a $5-trillion economy by 2025, it is imperative today to unleash the power of land with next generation land reforms.
  • A foolproof method of surveying land and maintaining records digitally will go a long way in unlocking value in rural India, curtailing disputes and unclogging courts. Model bill on conclusive land titling by NITI Aayog is a good way ahead.

LAND REFORMS : MICRO DIAGRAMS

STATE OF LAND HOLDING IN INDIA

STATE OF LAND HOLDING IN INDIA

STATE OF LAND HOLDING UNDER BRITISH RULE


POST INDEPENDENCE LAND REFORMS IN INDIA



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