Indian Polity and Constitution (Mains Marks Booster)

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Evolution of Indian Constitution

A constitution is a comprehensive framework of laws and regulations that establishes the structure of a state's government. It delineates the roles and interactions of various governmental institutions. 

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Preamble

The Preamble of the Constitution of India is an introductory statement that lays out the fundamental principles and goals of the Constitution. It reflects the aspirations and values of the Indian people and provides a guiding framework for interpreting and implementing the Constitution. 

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Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights are defined in Part III of the Constitution and are guaranteed to all persons without any discrimination

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Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) (PART IV, ARTICLE 36-51)

The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) in India are derived from the Irish constitution and are a set of guiding principles for the government. The Directive Principles resemble the "Instrument of Instructions" in the Government of India Act, 1935.

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Citizenship

Citizenship encompasses the concept of being a full and equal member of a political community, with a shared political identity and entitlement to specific rights. It establishes an individual's affiliation with a particular country, like India, Japan, or Germany, representing the relationship between an individual and the state.

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Comparison of Indian constitution with other countries

India's constitution was designed to make the government efficient, fair, and responsible. It ensures government lawfulness. It ensures the government follows the proper legislative process when passing or amending laws.

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Federalism - Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure

Federalism is a constitutional mechanism divides power between different levels of government, granting autonomy to federated units while sharing power according to agreed rules. It combines self-government and shared governance.

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Devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein

The idea of local self-government existed in India even in ancient times. Even if we accept it beginning as an organisational concept with Ripon's resolution, it is more than a century and two decades old.

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SEPARATION OF POWER

It implies that each pillar of democracy - the executive, legislature and judiciary – performs separate functions and acts as separate entities.

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Indian Parliament

Parliamentary System of Government: Which combines the legislative and executive branches of the state. It is important to consider this aspect when discussing the functions of Parliament.

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Indian Judiciary

Among the noble aims and objectives of the Constitution, the founding fathers accorded the highest place to Justice. Most significantly, Justice is placed higher than the other principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.

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Role of Pressure Groups in Polity

Influential organizations or associations that seek to promote specific interests and exert pressure on the government or other institutions to achieve their goals are called Pressure groups. Many organizations have vested interests in national governance, hence they could be called "Interest Groups."

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Constitutional Bodies

Article 280 of the Constitution established the Finance Commission to manage the distribution of tax revenues between the union and states, as well as among states, in order to address vertical and horizontal imbalances.

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Statutory bodies

Statutory Bodies are non-constitutional bodies that are established by an act passed by the Parliament or the state legislatures. Statutory bodies do not have any definition mentioned in the Constitution. It is a self-governing body.

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Regulatory Bodies

A regulatory body is an entity of the government tasked with acting independently and in the capacity of a supervisor over a certain area of human activity. This process includes setting expectations for behaviour, imposing norms, conditions, and restrictions, as well as enforcing them or obtaining compliance. Ex. PFRDA, RBI, SEBI etc.

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