Art & Culture And Modern History - (Mains Marks Booster)

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Important Modern History Events Before 1857

Aurangzeb's Reign (1658-1707): Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal ruler. 
Succession Crisis: Following Aurangzeb's death in 1707, a succession crisis ensued among his sons, leading to a series of conflicts and power struggles. Weak rulers and infighting weakened the central authority of the Mughal Empire. 

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Revolt of 1857

The 1857 revolt was a watershed moment in Indian history. It emerged as a spontaneous uprising against various grievances and injustices inflicted by the British East India Company.

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Growth of Nationalism in India

Nationalism emerged in 19th-century British India both in emulation of and as a reaction against the consolidation of British rule and the spread of Western civilization.

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Partition of Bengal (1905)

The partition of Bengal in 1905 stands as a watershed moment in India's fight against colonial rule, symbolizing the spirit of resilience, unity, and the unyielding pursuit of freedom. It was announced by Lord Curzon, the viceroy of India at the time, on July 20th, 1905, and went into effect on October 16th, 1905, only to be reversed six years later.

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Events led to Non-Cooperation Movement

The Government of India Act 1919 represents an important milestone in the constitutional progress of India under colonial rule.

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Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement

The Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation movement, despite having different issues, adopted a unified plan of action of non-violence and non-cooperation during 1919-22.

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Post NCM course of action and debate about the strategy

The 1920s and 1930s marked a significant period in Indian history. Indians participated actively in the national movement. And India saw the emergence of new forces including youth and trade unionism.

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Civil Disobedience Movement and Round Table Conferences

On April 6, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi initiated the Civil Disobedience Movement by collecting salt at the end of the Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, breaking the government's salt law. 

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National Movement During World War I and II

During World War I and World War II, India's national movement experienced significant developments and played a crucial role in the country's struggle for independence from British colonial rule. 

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Overall Impact of Britishers on Indian Society

Modern Education: Various commissions like Hunter, Raleigh, etc. for education reforms.
Infrastructure Development: Construction of railways, roads, bridges, and ports. For example, Dalhousie changed the map of India by introducing telegraph, Railways.

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Important Personalities

Annexation of Princely States through Doctrine of Lapse, such as Satara, Nagpur, etc.
Introduction and expansion of Railways, Telegraph and Postal Systems.
Modernization of Infrastructure like the construction of bridges, canals, and roads.

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Post-Independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the Country

During the era of independence, India was divided into two distinct political entities: British Provinces, which were directly under the governance of the British administration, and the Princely States, ruled by indigenous royals but acknowledging the supreme authority of the British Crown.

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Issues Associated with Languages and Official Language

Introduction:

The language issue in India has been a divisive and challenging issue. Linguistic diversity posed challenges for national consolidation with the debate over the union's official language, and states' linguistic reorganisation.

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Regionalism

Regionalism refers to the political or cultural principle that focuses on the promotion of the interests of a particular region or group within a nation or international entity. It involves advocating for specific regional needs, characteristics, and identities, often leading to demands for autonomy or increased political power within a state.

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Political Developments during Nehruvian Period

August 1947 to March 1952: Crucial period leading to the formation of the constitution and transitioning from the old legislative assembly to the newly elected parliament.

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Naxalism

Maoist movement is one of the longest and deadliest insurgencies in the country's history. 
Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) traces its origins back to the Telangana peasant rebellion (1946-51) but reached its peak in 1967 with the Naxalbari uprising in West Bengal. 

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Indian Economy since Independence

Post-independence, India embarked on a journey to develop its economy and uplift its citizens from poverty. Here is an overview of the history of Indian economy development since independence

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Educational and Scientific Developments in India since Independence

Radhakrishnan Commission (1948–49)

The commission investigated university education throughout the nation. The main suggestions were these.

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Architecture

The Ancient India encompassed a large area which incorporated present Pakistan, Afghanistan, Burma and parts of Indo-China. It was flanked by the Himalayas on the North-East, the Hindukush on the North-West and the Arabian sea, Indian ocean and the Bay of Bengal around the peninsula.

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Pottery

In the early villages of Mehrgarh, pottery from the Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BCE– 1500 BCE) has been found. In India, this cultural art form is being actively practised today. In the study of culture and the reconstruction of the past, pottery is important.

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Indian Paintings

Mural paintings in India have a diverse history spanning centuries. 
The earliest examples can be found in the Buddhist caves of the Satavahana period (224 BC to 200 BC), depicting scenes from the life of Buddha and his jataka stories. 

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Classical and Folk Dances

Classical Dances

Indian classical dancing emerged in India around 200 BCE, characterized by its joyful and celebratory nature. It often serves as a form of devotion to Hindu deities, with performances intricately choreographed to depict historical events and mythological tales. The various forms of Indian classical dance are known for their energetic movements, expressive gestures, and spiritual significance.

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Classical and Folk Music

Music is the soul of any culture, and India boasts a rich history of innovative music. According to legend, Narada Muni introduced music to the world. Evidence of a seven-holed flute from the Indus Valley Civilization signifies its ancient presence. The Sama Veda and Gandharva Veda, further emphasize music's spiritual significance and scientific aspects.

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