3Es of women empowerment: Engagement, emancipation and empathy:
  • Meaning: It gives a framework that underscores the importance of engaging women in all aspects of society, liberating them from systemic constraints, and promoting empathy and support for gender equality. These elements are interrelated and together contribute to creating a more equitable and empowered environment for women.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Women empowerment, social issues – patriarchy and women emancipation, women led development, Women Reservation Bill, Etc.
Local solutions to local problems:
  • Meaning: It emphasizes the idea that the best way to address certain issues or challenges is by finding solutions that are specific to the particular area or community where those problems exist.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Grassroot democracy, inclusive democracy, Bottom-up approach, aspirational districts, PRIs, 5th and 6th schedule, sustainable development Etc.

 Dimensions of sustainability: Social, economic and environmental:

  • Meaning: It refers to a balance between these dimensions, as they are interrelated. For example, an economically sustainable activity should not degrade the environment or exploit people unfairly. Similarly, socially sustainable initiatives should consider their economic and environmental impacts.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - sustainable development, inclusive growth, welfare state and participatory democracy, Etc.

 Humane drift of modern societies:

  • Meaning: It suggests a shift or tendency in contemporary societies towards more compassionate, ethical, and empathetic behavior and values. It signifies a growing awareness and emphasis on promoting the well-being, rights, and dignity of individuals and groups within these societies.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to – Poverty and hunger, inequality (social, economic and political), inclusive and participatory governance, ethics (perspective like human rights etc.), common problems like – refugee, migration and terrorism Etc.


Step to increase women participation in economic activity:
  • Example: Uttar Pradesh.
  • Step taken: Uttar Pradesh government recently launched the ‘Mission Mahila Sarathi’ initiative under the state’s Mission Shakti Abhiyan and flagged off buses that will be operated exclusively by women as drivers and conductors.


Key facts related to digitalization and internal security of India:
  • India is number two in terms of the number of internet users and in mobile manufacturing.
  • India has the 3rd largest startup ecosystem and is the 3rd largest energy consumer in the world.
  • In the last decade, terrorism, militant attacks, naxalism and ethnic violence have reduced by 65% from their peak levels.


Prime Minister’s speech:
  • On Police: They are pillars of great support, guiding citizens through challenges and ensuring safety. Their unwavering commitment to service embodies the true spirit of heroism.


The evolution of Supreme court (SC) judgement on LGBTQ+ community:
  • Naz Foundation v. Govt. of NCT of Delhi (2009): Delhi High Court, which held that treating consensual homosexual sex between adults as a crime is a violation of fundamental rights protected by India's Constitution. 
  • Suresh Kumar Koushal & Anr. v. NAZ Foundation & Ors. (2013): It  overturned the Delhi High Court case Naz Foundation v. Govt. of NCT of Delhi and reinstated Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code. 
  • Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India (2018): SC overturned Suresh Kumar Koushal judgement, decriminalizing homosexuality. Portions of Section 377 relating to sex with minors, non-consensual sexual acts such as rape, and bestiality remain in force.
  • In Supriyo Chakraborty case (2023): There is no fundamental right to marry, it holds. On that account, the Court decided that same sex persons cannot marry.


Global Minimum Tax:
  • Definition: The global minimum corporate tax rate, or simply the global minimum tax is a minimum rate of tax on corporate income internationally agreed upon and accepted by individual jurisdictions. Ex: The OECD developed a proposal featuring a corporate minimum tax of 15% on foreign profits of large multinationals.

Substantive Equality:

  • Definition: Substantive equality is a fundamental aspect of human rights law that is concerned with equitable outcomes and equal opportunities for disadvantaged and marginalized people and groups in society. It is an output or outcome of the policies, procedures, and practices used by nation states and private actors in addressing and preventing systemic discrimination.


Quote on Education: The aim of education is not to prepare a man to succeed in life, but to increase his perfectibility to its utmost”. – Sri Aurobindo
  • Meaning: The quote suggests that the primary goal of education is not merely to equip individuals with the skills and knowledge necessary for success in practical terms, such as finding a job or achieving financial success. Instead, it emphasizes that education should be focused on enhancing a person's capacity for self-improvement, personal development, and the pursuit of excellence.

Quote on War & Conflict: There are no military solutions. Dialogue and diplomacy are the only guarantee of lasting peace” - MARTIN McGUINNESS

  • Meaning: The quote conveys the idea that resolving conflicts and achieving long-term peace cannot be achieved through military means alone. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of using peaceful methods, such as negotiation, communication, and diplomacy, to address and ultimately resolve disputes.
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