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Three evils/obstacles in India’s growth: Corruption, nepotism and appeasement:
  • Meaning: Corruption - abuse of power or position for personal gain, nepotism involves favoritism shown to relatives or close friends and appeasement means policy of granting concessions or accommodations to specific groups or individuals.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to: political and electoral reforms, good governance, civil services reforms, transparency and accountability, ensuring effectiveness of government schemes, etc.
3Cs (Connect, Collaborate and Create): 
  • Meaning: The 3Cs principle encourages individuals, groups, society, states and countries at large to build bridges, work together, and innovate to achieve shared objectives, drive positive change, and contribute to personal and collective success.
  • Usage: It can be used as – 3Cs:
  • Between citizens for common good, brotherhood, peace and tolerance etc.
  • Between states for eliminating problems related to migration, supply chain problem, river disputes etc.
  • Between countries for international investment, supply chain management, fighting climate change and environment, creating green and resilient infrastructure, etc.
From reform to transform:
  • Meaning: It represents a transition from making incremental changes or improvements to a more comprehensive and fundamental alteration of a system, process, organization, or society. 
  • Usage: It can be used in questions related to - Social Empowerment – Education, health etc., Good governance, Policy Implementation, Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management, etc.
Converting hate into harmony, peace and progress: 
  • Meaning: It refers to the process of transforming a society or community that is plagued by hatred, conflict, and division into one that fosters unity, understanding, and positive development.
  • Usage: It can be used in questions to highlight – Hate speech and mob lynching, fraternity and brotherhood, Fundamental duty, Tolerance, Diversity of India, Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism, etc.

Individual effort to revolutionize sanitation in India:
  • Person: Bindeshwar Pathak.
  • Step taken: He championed the cause of sanitation by building over 10,000 public toilets across the country. He started the Sulabh movement in 1970 and dedicated his life to eradicating manual scavenging and spreading awareness on sanitation.
Need of regulating gaming industry and negative side of the crypto-currency:
  • Need of regulating gaming industry: As overseas based gaming and betting apps are siphoning out earnings in India by converting them to crypto currency and using layers of shell firms to dodge tax laws here.
  • Negative side of crypto-currency: According to GST Intelligence, Mumbai, one of gaming industries Parimatch collected over Rs 700 crore from users in India and channeled it out by converting it into crypto currency which is difficult to detect.

Women in STEM & Labour Force Participation:
  • At present: More girls than boys take up education in STEM in India. It’s a significant marker of social progress and also economic potential. 
  • However, women’s labour force participation rate was 24% in 2022 compared to the global average of 47%. 
Benefits of Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT):
  • According to PM-JDY report: Transfer of assorted subsidies and sops to the beneficiaries through DBT resulted in savings of more than Rs 2.5 trillion between FY15 andFY22.
Poverty in India:
  • NITI Aayog report on multidimensional poverty: The percentage of the poor has gone down from 25% in 2015-16 to 15% in 2019-21.
  • Global Multidimensional Poverty Index report (2023): The incidence of the multidimensional poverty index declined from 27.5% in 2015-16 to 16.2% in 2019-21.

President’s Speech: 
  • On Youth: India’s economic progress is powered by the dreams of its people, particularly the young generation. From start-ups to sports, our youth have explored new horizons of excellence. 
  • On Science: Science or knowledge are not ends-in-themselves but are a means for the betterment of all the people. 
  • On Constitution: Our Constitution is our guiding document. Its Preamble contains the ideals of our freedom struggle. Let us move forward with the spirit of harmony and brotherhood to realise the dreams of our nation-builders.    

SC Judgment on Cauvery Water Dispute: 
  • CWDT (Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal) Judgment (2018): The Supreme Court declared the Cauvery a national asset and largely upheld the water-sharing arrangements finalized by the CWDT and also reduced the allocation of water from Karnataka to Tamil Nadu.
Need for independent tribunals:
  • In Madras Bar Association vs Union of India case (2020), the SC held that:
  • To retain public trust in the public process, it is necessary to keep tribunals such as the Data Protection Board, River water tribunals etc. independent of executive control. 

Evergreen Forest:  
  • Definition: A forest in which there is no complete, seasonal loss of leaves and where more than 80% of tree species keep their leaves during the entire year.
  • These trees shed old leaves and produce new ones partially, and sometimes throughout the year, rather than during particular periods. 
  • The distribution of these forests’ ranges through boreal, middle, and tropical latitudes.
Data localization:
  • Definition: It refers to the practice of storing and processing data within the borders of a specific country or region, rather than allowing it to be transferred or accessed outside of that jurisdiction.
  • Data sovereignty: It refers to the concept that data is subject to the laws and governance of the country or jurisdiction in which it is located.

Quote on Democracy: Democracy is eternal and human. It dignifies the human being; it respects humanity”. – THOMAS MANN 
  • Meaning: The quote reflects a positive perspective on democracy, emphasizing its enduring nature and its focus on the dignity and respect for human beings. 
  • Democracy is indeed a system of government that is built upon principles of representation, participation, and protection of individual rights. 
Quote on Education & Economy: “A strong economy begins with a strong, well-educated workforce”. - Bill Owens
  • Meaning: The quote emphasizes the crucial role that education plays in driving economic growth and development. It suggests that a nation's economic success is directly linked to the quality and skills of its workforce.
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