YOM KIPPUR WAR (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – World History)

News-CRUX-10     9th October 2023        

Context: The recent attack by Hamas on Israel is drawing comparisons to the Yom Kippur War, fought five decades ago.

Yom Kippur War

  • About: The Yom Kippur War, also known as the October war or the Ramadan War, occurred from October 6 to 25, 1973, involving Israel against Egypt and Syria.
  • Yom Kippur is the holiest day in Judaism and Samaritanism, observed on the 10th day of the lunar month of Tishri, usually in September or early October, and referred to as the Day of Atonement.
  • It's alternatively called the Fourth Arab-Israeli war, succeeding conflicts in 1949, 1956, and 1967.
  • Background: Following its decisive victory in the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel gained a reputation for invincibility and acquired territories, including the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula.
  • Six years later, Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated attack on Israel, catching Israel off-guard during the holy Islamic month of Ramadan. Israel, initially unprepared due to Yom Kippur, took time to mobilize its troops, allowing Syria and Egypt to make initial gains.

Golan Heights 

  • About: Golan Heights refers to the border region captured from Syria by Israel during the Six-Day Middle-East War of 1967.
  • Geographically: It is bounded by the Jordan River and the Sea of Galilee on the west, Mount Hermon on the north, the seasonal Wadi Al-Ruqq’d on the east, and the Yarm?k River on the south.