VIKRAM-1 (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     29th March 2024        

Context: Skyroot Aerospace has successfully test-fired the Stage-2 of Vikram-1 space launch vehicle, called Kalam-250, at the propulsion testbed of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), at its Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh.


  • About: It is a three-stage, solid-fuel based rocket.
  • Features: The Vikram I, the first rocket in the series, consists of three solid fuel-powered stages, each with a burn time ranging between 80 and 100 seconds.
  • Description of Final Stage: The final stage of Vikram I is powered by the Raman engine, which uses MMH and NTO liquid fuels in a cluster of four engines generating 3.4 kN thrust.

  • Functionality of Raman Engines: These are utilized for final adjustments in the orbit of the stage.
  • Payload Capacity: Vikram I is designed to lift 290 kg to a 500 km Sun synchronous polar orbit (SSPO) and 480 kg to 45º inclination in a 500 km low Earth orbit (LEO).
  • Milestone Achievement: The successful test of Vikram-1 represents a significant milestone for the Indian space industry, marking the successful test of the largest propulsion system ever designed and manufactured by the Indian private sector, and the first carbon-composite-built motor tested.

Skyroot Aerospace

  • About: It is an Indian private aerospace manufacturer and commercial launch service provider based in Hyderabad, Telangana.
  • Founding by: Former engineers and scientists from ISRO, the company benefits from their expertise and experience in the field of aerospace technology.
  • Focus: To cater to the small satellite market by developing and launching its own series of small-lift launch vehicles, meeting the specific needs of this niche sector.