THIRUVALLUVAR Syllabus GS Paper 1 – History)

News-CRUX-10     17th January 2024        
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Context: On the occasion of Thiruvalluvar Day, Tamil Nadu Governor R.N. Ravi revived a controversy by paying floral tributes to a portrait of Tamil poet-saint Thiruvalluvar in saffron robes.


  • About: Thiruvalluvar, also known as Valluvar, remains a figure of debate regarding his existence and religious identity.
  • Time Period: The period of his existence is uncertain, with conflicting theories placing him between the 3rd-4th or 8th-9th century.
  • Linked to: Jainism, there are claims from Hindus asserting his association with Hinduism.
  • Diverse Recognition as a Saint: Dravidian groups recognize Thiruvalluvar as a saint due to his outspoken dismissal of the caste system.
  • The varied religious affiliations attributed to him reflect the cultural diversity surrounding his legacy.
  • Tirukkural: Thiruvalluvar's significant contribution to Sangam literature is the Tirukkural or 'Kural.'

Sangam Literature

  • Origin: The term 'Sangam' in Tamil finds its roots in the Sanskrit word 'Sangha,' denoting a group or association.
  • The Tamil Sangam refers to an academy of poets that thrived in distinct periods and locations, under the patronage of Pandyan kings.
  • Historical Timeline: The Tamil Sangam's historical timeline spans from the 3rd century BC to the 3rd century CE.
  • Poetic compositions within the Sangam literature are richly themed around subjects such as love and war.