PROSTATE CANCER (Syllabus GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     5th April 2024        

Context: According to a Lancet report published recently, the number of new prostate cancer cases around the world is projected to more than double over the next two decades as poorer countries catch up with the ageing of richer nations.

Prostate Cancer

  • About: It originates in the prostate, a small gland in males responsible for producing seminal fluid.
  • Prevalence and Variability: Among cancers, prostate cancer ranks as one of the most common types, with growth rates varying from slow to aggressive.
  • Early Detection and Treatment: Detecting prostate cancer in its early stages, when localized within the prostate, offers the best prospects for successful treatment.
  • Symptoms: Advanced stages of prostate cancer may manifest in various symptoms, including urinary difficulties, blood in urine or semen, bone pain, weight loss, and erectile dysfunction.
  • Risk Factors: Age, race (particularly among Black individuals), family history, and obesity.

Key Findings of Report

  • Projected Rise in Prostate Cancer Cases: The number of new cases annually is expected to increase from 1·4 million in 2020 to 2·9 million by 2040.
  • Inadequacy of Lifestyle Changes: The surge in cases cannot be prevented solely by lifestyle changes or public health interventions.
  • Necessity for Government Strategies: Governments need to prepare strategies to effectively deal with the rising incidence of prostate cancer.
  • Incidence in India: Prostate cancer incidence in India is projected to double to about 71,000 new cases per year by 2040.

oProstate cancer accounts for three percent of all cancers in India, with an estimated 33,000-42,000 new cases diagnosed annually.

  • Diagnosis and Mortality in Advanced Stages: A large proportion of patients in India are diagnosed in advanced stages, leading to a higher mortality rate, where about 65 percent die of the disease.