OPTICAL FIBRE CABLE (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Sci and Tech)

News-CRUX-10     18th June 2024        
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Context: The European Commission Directorate General for Trade has imposed provisional anti-dumping duties, ranging from 8.7% to 11.4%, on around eleven Indian optical fibre cable manufacturers.

Optical Fibre Cable

  • About: Optical Fibres are thin, cylindrical strands made of glass, typically as thin as a human hair.
  • Capabilities: They transmit various forms of digitized information over long distances at speeds approaching that of light.
  • Strength and Flexibility: Optical Fibres are strong, lightweight, and highly flexible, suitable for diverse environmental conditions.
  • Nobel Prize Recognition: Charles Kao was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for his pioneering contributions to Fibre optic communication.
  • Working Principles

oTotal Internal Reflection (TIR): Optical signals are guided within the Fibre through TIR, where light reflects internally due to the higher refractive index of glass compared to air.

oSignal Encoding: Information is encoded as rapid light pulses (binary digits) that travel through the Fibre via TIR.

oSignal Transport: Optical Fibres transport encoded signals over long distances with minimal signal loss, ensuring high integrity at the receiver end.

Benefits of Optical Fibres

  • High Speed: Capable of transmitting data at speeds exceeding 10 Gbps, surpassing copper wire's capabilities.
  • Long Range Transmission: Minimal signal loss allows data to travel far distances efficiently.
  • Immunity to Interference: Optical Fibres are less susceptible to electromagnetic interference, ensuring reliable data transmission.
  • Durability: With a glass core that insulates against electric currents, optical Fibres are highly durable against environmental factors.
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