NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL (NGT) (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Env & Eco)

News-CRUX-10     8th September 2023        

Context: The National Green Tribunal (NGT), Bhopal has directed the Union ministry of environment and forest and climate change (MoEF&CC) to take necessary action against illegal mining carried our without valid environmental clearance in the buffer zone of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve.

National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • Background: The NGT was established by an Act of the Parliament i.e., National Green Tribunal, Act, 2010.
  • Objective: NGT was established for the effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources.
  • Inspired by: NGT draws inspiration from:

-The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held at Stockholm in 1972.

-The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

-And, from the Constitution of India under Article 21 which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment (by judicial pronouncement).

  • NGT Powers: The following are the Acts under which NGT can take actions and has authority to take actions:

o The Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974.

o The Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977.

o The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980.

o The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution), 1981.

o The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.

o The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

  • However, the NGT Act does not cover two important legislations related to environment, they are: The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 Forest Rights) Act, 2006.