MORODHARO (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – History)

News-CRUX-10     21st February 2024        
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Context: Archaeologists recently discovered a Harappan-era fortified settlement named Morodharo.


  • Location: Kutch District, Gujarat
  • Timeline: (2,600-1,900 BCE) to late (1,900-1,300 BCE) Harappan.
  • Features

oFortification: The fortification of the settlement spans 102 meters from east to west and 58 meters from north to south, indicating substantial defensive measures.

oSturdy Wall Construction: The thickness of the wall averages 3.3 meters, highlighting the engineering sophistication of the Harappan civilization in defensive architecture.

oStrategic Platforms and Wells: Notably, there is a 10x10 meter platform situated on the south-west side, likely serving strategic or ceremonial purposes. Additionally, a well located on the north-east side underscores the settlement's focus on sustainable water management.

oPresence of Burial Cairns: Burial cairns, characteristic mounds of stones used to demarcate boundaries or burial sites, are discovered within the settlement, suggesting cultural practices and territorial delineations of the era.

Harappan Civilization

  • About: The civilization is named Harappan because Dayaram Sahni first excavated its site in 1921.
  • Main Crops: Two types of Wheat and Barley. Evidence of cultivation of rice in Lothal and Rangpur (Gujarat) only.
  • Town Planning: Indus cities were well planned. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have shown a lot of evidence of this. The city had two parts, i.e., the citadel and the outer city. 
  • Roads: The roads were wide and straight cutting each other at right angles.
  • Great Bath: The Great Bath is one of the most remarkable structures discovered at the archaeological site of Mohenjo-Daro.