MALAYSIAN BORNEO AND KALIMANTAN (Syllabus: GS Paper 1 – Geography)

News-CRUX-10     28th June 2024        

Context: The elephants of Sabah in Malaysian Borneo and Kalimantan in Indonesian Borneo have been classified as 'Endangered' on the IUCN Red List.

Malaysian Borneo

  • Also known as: East Malaysia or the Borneo States.
  • Island Information: It is the part of Malaysia on and near the island of Borneo, the world's third-largest island.
  • Constituent States: East Malaysia comprises the states of Sabah, Sarawak, and the Federal Territory of Labuan.


  • About: It is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
  • Area: It constitutes 73% of the island's area.
  • Political Division: Kalimantan, southern three-fourths of the island of Borneo that is politically part of Indonesia.
  • Malaysian and Brunei Territories: The rest of the island is divided between the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak and, between them, the sultanate of Brunei.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

  • About: IUCN was founded in 1948 as the International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN).
  • In 1956, the organization was renamed IUCN.
  • Headquarters: Gland, Switzerland.
  • IUCN Red List: The most extensive record of the worldwide conservation status of plant and animal species across the globe.
  • IUCN Red Data Book: It is a publicly available document designed to record endangered and rare species of plants, animals, fungi, and certain local subspecies found in a specific region.