LEFT-WING EXTREMISM (Syllabus: GS Paper 3 – Internal Security)

News-CRUX-10     7th October 2023        

Context: The Union home minister of India recently declared that India aims to eliminate Left-Wing Extremism (LWE) within the next two years.

Left-Wing Extremism (LWE)

  • About: Left-wing extremists, known globally as Maoists and in India as Naxalites/Naxalism, have posed a significant threat to India since the 1960s.
  • Origin of Naxalism: The term "Naxalism" is derived from Naxalbari, a village in West Bengal. In 1967, a peasant uprising occurred in Naxalbari, triggered by a land dispute with local landlords.
  • Historical Roots: The roots of LWE in India can be traced back to the Telangana peasant rebellion, which occurred from 1946 to 1951. 
  • However, the movement gained prominence in 1967 when peasants, landless laborers, and Adivasis (tribal people) raided a landlord's granaries in Naxalbari, West Bengal.


  • Maoism, created by Mao Tse Tung, represents a variant of communism.
  • It serves as a doctrine aimed at seizing control of the State through a blend of armed insurgency, widespread mobilisation, and strategic partnerships.

Initiatives to fight LWE

  • SAMADHAN doctrine: It is a strategy to frame short term and long-term policies to tackle LWE. It includes: S- Smart Leadership; A- Aggressive Strategy; M-Motivation and Training; A- Actionable Intelligence; D- Dashboard Based KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) and KRAs (Key Result Areas); H- Harnessing Technology; A- Action plan for each Theatre; N- No access to Financing.
  • National strategy to counter LWE was formed in 2015.
  • Greyhounds: It was raised in 1989 as an elite anti-naxal force.
  • Operation Green Hunt: Started in 2009-10 it aims for massive deployment of security forces was done in the naxal-affected areas.
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