IRAN (Syllabus: GS Paper 2 – IR)

News-CRUX-10     21st May 2024        
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Context: President of Iran recently died in a helicopter crash in East Azerbaijan province.


  • About: Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI), is situated in West Asia. 
  • Bordering Countries: It shares borders with Iraq to the west, Turkey to the northwest, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Caspian Sea, and Turkmenistan to the north, Afghanistan to the east, Pakistan to the southeast, and the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south.
  • Geographic Features: Iran is characterized by its mountainous, arid, and ethnically diverse landscape in southwestern Asia.
  • Capital: Tehran 
  • Mountain: Elburz Mountains.
  • Lake: Lake Urmia is an internationally registered protected area as both a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and a Ramsar site.

India – Iran Relations

  • Historical Relation: India and Iran share ancient ties dating back to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamian civilizations, with historical trade via the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea.
  • Political Relations: On 15 March 1950, a friendship treaty was signed, followed by the Tehran Declaration, envisioning an equitable, pluralistic, and cooperative international order.
  • Trade Relations: India has been among Iran's five largest trade partners in recent years.
  • Iran was the third-largest source of crude oil supplier for India till 2018-19.

oIndian Exports to Iran: Rice, tea, sugar, pharmaceuticals, manmade staple fibres, electrical machinery, and artificial jewellery.

oIndian Imports from Iran: Dry fruits, inorganic/organic chemicals, and glassware.

  • Connectivity: India and Iran signed a 10-year development and operation contract for Chabahar Port in southeastern Iran, on the Gulf of Oman.

oThe International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) was initiated by India, Iran, and Russia in 2000, later expanding to include 10 Central and West Asian countries.

  • Cultural Relations: The Indian Cultural Centre, established in 2013 and renamed the Swami Vivekananda Cultural Centre (SVCC) in 2018, helps to further these cultural ties.

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