News-CRUX-10     21st May 2024        

Context: The International Criminal Court recently declared its intention to pursue the arrest of the Israeli Prime Minister and other leaders, charging them with war crimes and crimes against humanity.

International Criminal Court (ICC)

  • About: It is the first and only permanent international court with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals for the international crimes like - genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression.
  • Establishment: In 2002 pursuant to the multilateral Rome Statute.
  • Headquarter: The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Members: 123 countries. Countries like – India, China and Pakistan have not signed the treaty and not a party.
  • Organisation Structure

oPresidency: Manages external relations with States, coordinates judicial affairs, and oversees Registry administration.

oJudicial Divisions: Comprising Pre-Trial, Trial, and Appeals, these divisions (with 18 judges across three) conduct judicial proceedings.

oOffice of the Prosecutor: Conducts preliminary examinations, investigations, and prosecutions.

oRegistry: Manages non-judicial tasks including security, interpretation, outreach, and support for defense and victims' lawyers.

  • Jurisdiction: The ICC’s jurisdiction is limited only to natural persons (unlike the International Court of Justice, which hears disputes between states) with minimum age of the alleged perpetrator should be 18 years at the time of the commission of the crime.
  • Relation with UN: The ICC is not part of the UN. The Rome Statute was negotiated within the UN; however, it created an independent judicial body distinct from the UN.